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Toledo Glass National 




The Toledo Museum of Art • October 15 — November 15, 1966 



Toledo Glass National 




The Toledo Museum of Art • October 15 — November 15, 1966 





Dominick Labino: 

Footed Beaker, smoky green. 

reduced copper decoration. 



Dominick Labino: 

Objects in Space," light 

green. 



Forward 



Glass is one of the oldest of crafts, and its 
beginnings are lost in the myths of the past. 
Few believe any more Pliny's account of the 
accidental discovery of glass in the ashes of 
a Phoenician trader's camp-fire. We do not 
know how it began. We do know that it was 
in the centuries surrounding the birth of 
Christ a precious commodity carried and 
traded throughout the Mediterranean. 

Glass has also been one of the most tradi- 
tional of all manufactures. The old apprentice 
system of learning the trade of glass-blowing 
is still followed today. The master glass-blower 
or gaffer is still served by his assistants who 
learn from observation and occasional prac- 
tice, and hope one day to become gaffers 
themselves. 

But most significant of all is the continuing 
tradition that the glass-blower and his assist- 
ants are workers who contrive with great skill 
to create what others design. Almost unknown 
in history or in modern manufacture is the 
designer who also works his own glass. The 
designer makes his sketch on paper. The glass- 
blower forms the design in three dimensions. 



Now a new movement is developing in 
which the designer and craftsman are one 
and the same. Glass for the first time has 
become primarily a form of art expressive of 
the ideas of its creators. 

The concept of the designer who is also a 
craftsman is not new. It has existed in the 
field of ceramics since the 1930s. There is a 
clear division between commercial ceramic 
production involving workmen who execute 
the designs of others and the pottery pro- 
duced by the designer-craftsmen who both 
design and execute their ceramics. But this 
difference in the production of glass emerged 
for the first time only five years ago in Toledo. 

The new concept in glass is at once revo- 
lutionary, creative, and as yet untried. It hap- 
pened because designer-craftsmen in the 
field of ceramics felt that the medium of glass 
should offer equal possibilities for creative 
expressive forms. Only the technical ability 
to work the material was lacking. 

Through a courageous effort sponsored by 
the Toledo Museum of Art, ceramics craftsmen 
combined with glass technicians to make the 



first tentative efforts to blow glass from a new 
formula which could be melted at a tempera- 
ture low enough to be workable in the average 
studio or classroom situation. 

We were not aware in those first two semi- 
nars of March and June 1962 just how revo- 
lutionary these tentative efforts were. We 
worked under adverse conditions in an open 
garage on the Museum grounds. Harvey Lit- 
tleton who had taught ceramics at the Toledo 
Museumfor several years and Dominick Labino 
who had been vice president for research, 
the Johns-Manville Fiber Glass Corporation, 
and Harvey Leafgreen, a retired glass-blower 
from the Libbey Glass Company, all contributed 
their own special skills to this pioneer class. 
The products were pitifully few and inept. 
The spark had been kindled, however. From 
this first course grew about fifteen courses in 
glass craftsmanship now taught in colleges 
and art schools across the country. 

The two Toledo Museum glass workshops 
of 1962 attempted to explore the possibilities 
of establishing glass as a craft medium and to 
determine the feasibility of teaching glass 
working as a craft discipline. 



Less than five years since these first glass 
workshops were held at the Museum we can, 
by the works shown in this exhibition, affirm 
the achievement of both of these goals. Glass 
from designer-craftsmen in forms and colors 
that could not be duplicated by the industry 
has come to this exhibition from seventeen 
states of our country. Much of the work has 
been submitted from schools and colleges. 
Glass is now becoming an object of attention 
in craft exhibitions and on the part of cura- 
tors dealing with contemporary art in museums 
across the country. 

We are gratified by this rapid development 
and are pleased that the cooperation among 
academic, industrial, and museum interests 
which formed the pioneer Museum workshops 
of 1962 has helped make this possible. We 
hope that the exhibition will provide a further 
incentive to those craftsmen who have joined 
us in this rewarding adventure which reviews 
a few brief years of experimentation and 
growth. 

Otto Wittmann 
Director 






•MSOK****** 



Lewis Eugene Orr: 
Dark Green Bowl. 



Robert H. Barber: 
"Distortion." 



Statement 



The first national competitive exhibition of 
individually made glass, which we were in- 
vited to select, has been an encouraging 
experience. 

Technical competence was not the over- 
riding criterion in making the selections. Our 
main purpose was to choose those pieces in 
which the craftsmen knew how to capitalize 
on expressive qualities uniquely possessed 
by glass. 

Forty-three out of forty-eight entrants had 
work accepted; clearly the level of basic com- 
petence in this rather young variation on an 
ancient craft is exceptional. We look forward 
to the development of these and other indi- 
vidual glass craftsmen working outside of the 
industrial complexes. However, a number of 
problems have yet to be resolved. Craftsmen 
entering the exhibition as sculptors were 



still seeking their way, as was especially 
evident in the bases they provided which, 
more often than not, seemed to us inappro- 
priate and not calculated to present the works 
to best advantage. Could more be done with 
self-supporting glass sculpture, a concept 
that seems natural in glass? On the other 
hand, we believe there were valuable attempts 
to conjoin glass and other media in unified 
expressions. 

In our opinion this exhibition demonstrates 
that glass has now joined other more familiar 
materials as a legitimate medium for adven- 
turous designer-craftsmen. 



Edgar Kaufman, Jr. 
Paul N. Perrot 
Rudolf M. Riefstahl 





Harvey K. Littleton: 
Vase, Opaque Copper 



Catalogue 



Awards are indicated in the catalogue. Works 
illustrated have been commended by the jury. 
Catalogue descriptions have been provided 
by the craftsmen. 



Clayton Bailey 

Whitewater, Wisconsin 
Optic mold steam Bubble 

Robert H. Barber 

Madison, Wisconsin 

"Single Rose Vase" 

"Sea or Sky" 
■"Distortion" 

$250 Jury Award 

Andre G. Billed 

Alfred Station, New York 
Brown Vase, 3 cut openings 
Amber and Clear Vase, 4 cut openings 

Michael Boylen 

Bennington, Vermont 
Green Drop 
Green flat Bottle 
Moss Green Bottle 

William H. Boysen 

Carbondale, Illinois 
Mounted Freeform on limestone base 
Red Jug with green decoration 



C. Fritz Dreisbach 

Madison, Wisconsin 

Red and Clear Steam Bottle Sphere 
■ Blue-green Vase with 2 small prunts 

Purchase Award 

Grey green footed sphere with 2 implosions 

Joan F. Byrd 

Madison, Wisconsin 
Clear Bottle dipped in blue 

Alice L Duncan 

Toledo, Ohio 

Blue-green bottle with oxides 

Edris Eckhardt 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio 
Power and the Glory 
Lost Continent 

Robert C. Florian 

Berwyn, Illinois 
Marble Glass Bowl 




Robert C. Fritz: William H. Boysen: Robert C. Fritz: 
Vase Form I. Mounted Free Form. Sculptural Bowl 



Fred L. Frey 

Valparaiso, Indiana 
Blown Channeled Vase, 
Blown Gemini Bottle, 

Robert C. Fritz 

San Jose, California 

Sculptural Bowl 
■ Vase Form I 

Purchase Award 

Vase Form II 
Multiple Vase Form 

Carl Hall 

Bowling Green, Ohio 
Grey Blue Bottle 
Grey Blue Bottle 

Audrey Handler 

Madison, Wisconsin 
Fumed Copper Ruby Bottle 
Copper Ruby Bottle 



Donald Hartman 

Madison, Wisconsin 
Vase 
Bottle 



Betsey Blake Harwood 

Kent, Ohio 
Form with Copper Red 
Rhinoceros 

David Porter Hatch 

Newport Beach, California 
Blown Blue cut Sculpture, 

Samuel J. Herman 

Bronx, New York 
Fumed Bottle 

Kent F. Ipsen 

Mankato, Minnesota 
Bottle, Purple swash 

William Jerdon 

East Cleveland, Ohio 
Green Bottle 



Don Johns 

Elgin, Illinois 

Green Bottle Luster 

Pale Green Vase with variations 
■ Clear Bottle with iridescence 

Purchase Award 







C. Fritz Dreisbach: 

Blue-green Vase with 

two Prunts. 



Douglas L. Johnson 

River Falls, Wisconsin 
Grey/Greeen Thick Bottle, 
Grey & clear Bottle, 

Frank L. Kulasiewicz 

Las Cruces, New Mexico 
Bottle, Silver Glass Cased 
Vase — iron, copper glass with cased 
silver leaf 

Dominick Labino 

Grand Rapids, Ohio 

■ Blown footed beaker, smoky green, reduced 
copper veil in foot, copper rim 

Purchase Award 

■Blown "Objects in Space" — light green 

Purchase Award 
$500 Jury Award for two pieces 

Blown "Ariel Vase" (blue and green) 

opalescent 

Blown silver ruby pitcher, dichroic 

Rodger Lang 

Cleveland, Ohio 
Small blue Form 

Marvin B. Lipofsky 

Berkeley, California 
Enclosed Glass Form/Brass inserts 
Bubbles 
Green glass Form with two expanded sides 



Harvey K. Littleton 

Verona, Wisconsin 

Opposing Forms 

Vase, Silver Yellow 

Vase, Expanded Prunts, Silver 
■ Vase, Opaque Copper 

Purchase Award 

Judith Loyd 

Detroit, Michigan 
Small banded blue 

Fred Lucero 

San Jose, California 
Free blown glass Bottle, clear, 
Free blown glass Bottle, clear, bubbles 

Fred M. Marcus 

Madison, Wisconsin 
Flat Bottle 
Bottle, acid-etched 

Richard Charles Marquis 

Berkeley, California 
Reduced copper Bottle, 

Tom McGlauchlin 

Lynnwood, Washington 
Green Vase, 
Vase, blue with copper, 
Mallet Vase, Blue and copper, 
Vase, brown to clear with swirls, 




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Kent F. Ipsen: 
Bottle, Purple Swash. 



Robert H. Barber: 
"Sea on Sky." 



Steven S. Mildwoff 

Kew Gardens, New York 
Sea Night 

Joel Philip Myers 

Milton, West Virginia 
"Introspectus 4" — blown off-hand 
"Myriad One" — blown off-hand 
Crystal Form, CuCo3, Marvered in first ball 

Zora A. Norris 

Berkeley, California 
Sand-blast Prunted Sculpture 
Lobed dark green Vase Form 
Double Spouted Vase Form 
Divided Bottle 

Lewis Eugene Orr 

El Cajon, California 
■ Dark green Bowl, 

Purchase Award 
$250 Jury Award 

Ralph E. Peotter, Jr. 

Fargo, North Dakota 
Vase (silver chloride) Cased 



Miska F. Petersham 

Kent, Ohio 
Green bumpy Bottle 
Green Bottle 

Sarah Calhoun Savage 

Huntington, West Virginia 
Lavender and Orange Vase, 

Norman Schulman 

Rehoboth, Massachusetts 
"Glass" Volume I 
"Glass" Volume II 

James M. Wayne 

Los Gatos, California 
Clear Container, glass/bronze 

Michael Whitley 

Madison, Wisconsin 
Bottle with inner ring 
Triple Prunted Vase 

David K. Whittemore 

New York, N. Y. 
Dancer (sculpture) 






*S?f* r 



A 





Fred M. Marcus: Don Johns: Don Johns: 

Bottle, Acid-etched. Bottle, Clear with Iridescence. Pale Green with Variations. 



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